Road Safety FFM 4 Report | 2013 | Australia

FFM4 report – andria mf

This report describes lessons learned I’ve got at the fourth road safety fact finding mission in Vicroads, Melbourne, Australia, 18-22 March 2013.

It contains heaps of valuable information regarding road safety such as:

1. Brief information of vicroads, the ‘bina marga’ of Victoria Australia
2. safe system approach
3. partnership and coordination in road safety
4. road safety public awareness, including link of amazing ads on youtube
5. roadside hazard management
6. road safety in design
7. blackspot investigation
8. road safety audit
9. speed management
10. best practices of one of victoria toll road projects
11. road safety challenges in indonesia

 

 

Al Mursalat (QS:77) Ayat 29-43 | Abi Makki | 15 02 2014

Catatan Pengajian Subuh Abi Makki. Kalau ada yang salah mohon dikoreksi 🙂

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Quran Surah Al Mursalat (Surah ke 77) Ayat 29-43

 

Ayat 29

“Pergilah kalian”. Ini maksudnya kepada orang2 kafir. Pergi ke suatu tempat yang dulu kamu dustakan. Maksudnya yaumul hisab.
Ada orang yg tidak mengakui yaumul hisab sama sekali. Baginya. Hidup cuma sekali. Ada juga orang yang mengakui adanya yaumul hisab tapi ngga mempersiapkan diri. Tetep maksiat. Tetep buat dosa.
Dua-duanya sama-sama masuk dalam kategori ini.

Ayat 30

Pergilah. Berteduh di bawah 3 cabang

Ibarat ada anak yang bangel ngebut-ngebutan. Dibilang orangtuanya jangan ngebut, nanti jatoh. Tapi si anak tetep bandel, ngebut, dan akhirnya jatoh dan tulangnya patah. Lalu orangtuanya bilang “enak kan patah tulang?”. Kira2 itu makna dari ayat ini. “Silahkan berteduh di bawah asap api neraka, di bawahnya api neraka”

Sirath atau jembatan.

Lamanya perjalanan di atas jembatan ini hanya 30.000 taun. 10.000 taun turunan, 10.000 taun tanjakan, 10.000 taun lurus.
Jembatan lebih tipis daripada rambut. Berjalannya di dalam kegelapan malam. Di bawahnya ada tingkatan-tingkatan neraka. Kalau ada yang jatuh, 40.000 taun ke bawah belum sampai ke neraka.
Asapnya sangat hitam. Saking hitamnya kalau kita taro tangan di depan kita, tangan kita ngga keliatan.
Lalu apa yg menerangi saat itu? Hanya amal saleh. Baca Surah At tahrim (66) ayat 8.

Bagaimana kondisi orang yang menyeberangi jembatan tersebut? Kata rasulullah “Ada yg secepat kilat. Seperti burung terbang. Seperti manusia biasa. Seperti ayam. Ada yg nunggu cahaya baru jalan. Saat redup dia nunggu. dst”

Siti aisyah suatu saat menangis.  

Rasul bertanya. “Ya Aisyah. Apa yg membuatmu menangis?”

Jawab Aisyah “Bagaimana aku tidak menangis ya Rasulullah, aku memikirkan kubur dan aku memikirkan hisab
Kata rasul. “Itu tidak bisa kita hindari ya aisyah“.
Lalu Aisyah berkata “Wahai Rasulullah. Apakah nanti ada satu masa seseorang kelak di akhirat lupa dgn orang yg dicintainya di dunia ini? (maksudnya, ya Rasulullah, mungkinkah engkau lupa denganku kelak?)

Rasul menjawab.
Ada 3 tempat/waktu dimana kita tidak akan sempat memikirkan siapa-siapa karena kita sibuk memikirkan diri sendiri dengan urusan masing-masing. Tempat tersebut adalah:
1. Ketika dibagikan kitab amal

2. Ketika ditimbang. Yaumul hisab.

3. Ketika di sirath.

Bagaimana cara kitab amal dibagikan?

Nanti orang-orang kaget. Tiba2 ada burung terbang. Ternyata yg terbang bukan burung. Tapi buku. Berantakan terbangnya. Kiri kanan terus. Lalu kitab tersebut jatuh ke diri kita. Mereka dalam keadaan khawatir. Ada yg kitabnya jatuh di tangan kanan. Ada yg di tangan kiri. Ada yg ke pundaknya. Yang menerima kitabnya dengan tangan kanan adalah orang mukmin soleh. Yang menerima dengan tangan kiri adalah orang mukmin tidak soleh. Yang menerima di pundak adalah orang munafik. Orang kafir ngga dapet buku. Ngga punya catetan apa-apa karena ngga punya Laa ila ha illallah.

Ayat 31.

Naungan yang disampaikan di ayat sebelumnya itu tidak melindungi diri dari api

Ayat 32.

Lemparan api neraka itu setinggi istana

Ayat 33. 

Api itu menyerang seperti unta kuning. (kuningnya api). Ada juga yang mengartikan lain, yaitu seperti unta hitam legam karena asap dari api neraka.

Ayat 34.

“Wailuyyaumaidzillilmukadzzibiin” Kecelakaan Ini Aku khususkan utk orang2 yg mendustakan

Ayat ini berulang-ulang..(kalau tidak salah ada 10 X pengulangan)

Ada hubungan dengan ayat di Surah Ar Rahman (55) yang “Fa-biayyi alaa’i Rabbi kuma tukadzdzi ban”

Ayat 35.
Hari ini. Anda tidak bisa bicara apa-apa. Maksudnya. Ngga bisa membela diri. Mulut udah terkunci. Yang bicara tangannya, kulitnya, dst.. 

Ayat 36. Ngga ada lagi yang bisa ngasih alasan.

Yg paling lama dihisab adalah orang kaya dan orang yang banyak alasan. Setiap harta yang kita miliki akan ditanya satu per satu, dari mana kita dapat, apa yang kita gunakan dengan harta tersebut.

Ayat 37.
Celakalah bagi org2 yg mendustakan

Ayat 38. Ini adalah hari yang nyata. “Fasl” maknanya pasti terjadi /mutlak benarnya.

“Jama’naakum wal awwaliin”. Nanti kita dikumpulin sama orang2 jaman dulu. kaum nabi soleh. Kaum nabi nuh. Nanti kita ketemu dengan kakek kita, nenek kita. orang tua kita, dengan usia yang sama. Ngga bisa dibayangkan dengan pikiran kita saat ini.

Ayat 39
Kalo anda punya tipu muslihat. mau bela diri (pakai pengacara, jabatan, duit, dst). Nanti di akhirat. Coba suruh mereka membela anda. Tetep anda akan celaka.

Ayat 40. 

Celakalah bagi orang-orang yg mendustakan

Ayat 41.
Sesungguhnya orang-orang yang bertaqwa berada dalam naungan yg teduh. Dan ada suara gemericik air.
Bayangkan kira2 tanah terbuat dari kaca.Seperti yg pernah dibuat nabi sulaiman.

Ayat 42.

Akan mendapatkan buah apapun yang diinginkan.

Ayat 43.
Silahkan. Makan minum. Ini semua milik anda.

Al Hajj | Abi Makki | 12 12 2009

Al Hajj 
Pengajian Subuh Abi Makki – Sabtu 12 Desember 2009

Al Hajj merupakan surah yang penuh keajaiban, luar biasa keanehannya, karena sebagian ayat turun di Kota Makkah, sebagian di Madinah. Sebagian turun di waktu siang, sebagian di waktu malam, sebagian waktu Rasul sedang di perjalanan, sebagian ketika di rumah. Surah ini tetap termasuk surah Madaniyah karena semua surah yang turun setelah Rasulullah hijrah merupakan surah Madaniyah. Surah Al Hajj merupakan satu-satunya surah yang dinamakan dari rukun islam, haji. 

Ada 3 pokok pembahasan di dalam surah ini:
1. Al Qiamah, hari kiamat/hari kebangkitan
2. Ibadah yang penuh kekhusuan/ibadah khudhu
3. Jihad fisabilillah
Apa hubungannya antara ketiga poin ini terhadap ibadah haji?

Poin 1

Ayat 1..hari ketika bumi digoncangkan. Ayat pertama aja udah ngebahas kiamat. Sesungguhnya yang namanya kiamat adalah suatu hal yang benar dan amat dahsyat. Haji dan kiamat sama-sama melelahkan, ga ada yang namanya leha-leha. Di haji ada miqat, batas bagi dimulainya ibadah haji. Apabila melintasi miqat, seseorang yang ingin mengerjakan haji perlu mengenakan kain ihram dan memasang niat. Miqat ini ngga boleh ditinggalkan. Di kehidupan juga ada miqat, yaitu ketika di alam janin, di dunia, dan di alam barzah. Semua tahapan harus dilewati. Di haji, sampe ke Makkah ga ada istirahat, langsung tawaf, sai, dll. Maknanya, di akhirat juga ga ada istirahat, Di Padang Mahsyar aja waktu yang dibutuhkan 50.000 tahun, Sirathal Mustaqim ada 7 pos, masing-masing pos 3.000 tahun. 

Ketika haji, bacaannya sama, labbaikallah humma labbaik, jamaah dari afrika, kutub utara, sunda, bacaannya sama. Ketika tawaf, maka manusia akan berkumpul di dalam kepadatan. Apa maknanya berpadat-padatan ketika tawaf? Di padang mahsyar nanti, semua manusia mulai dari Nabi Adam sampai dengan manusia terakhir akan dikumpulkan di tempat yang sama. Ketika itu seluruh manusia berdesak-desakan, panas, dan dibanjiri oleh keringat. Sangking padatnya, dada nempel dengan punggung orang di depannya. 

Tawaf itu muter mulai dari hajar aswad mengelilingi Ka’bah hingga bertemu dengan hajar aswad lagi. Terserah deh jalurnya gimana, maksudnya, mengelilingi Ka’bahnya bisa bener-bener seperti lingkaran, bisa agak ouval, bisa agak kotak, dst, yang penting mesti mulai dari hajar aswad dan mesti balik lagi ke hajar aswad, dan tawaf harus dilakukan didalam lingkungan masjidil haram. Maknanya, anda boleh saja berprofesi sebagai apapun, boleh jadi pengusaha, pedagang, dll, tapi tetaplah berada di dalam Islam. Kemanapun kita pergi, kita pasti akan kembali kepada Allah. Innalillahi wa inna ilaihi rajiuun. 

Waktu haji, abis tawaf ifada, rambut acak-acakan, baju ihram kotor, wajah lelah, kucel, rambut ga disisir, ga pake parfum. Hal ini menggambarkan ketika kita bangkit di padang mahsyar nanti, keadaannya akan mirip seperti itu. Bangkit dari pasir, kotor, penuh debu. Padahal sebelum pake baju ihram disunnahkan mandi dan pake parfum. Sama seperti jenazah, sebelum dikafankan dimandikan dulu. Nanti kita akan dibangkitkan di alam mahsyar dari tulang ekor. Ayat 5 dan 7.

Ayat 2. Waktu kiamat manusia akan panik. Waktu haji, pas lempar jumrah, dulu sempet ada injek-injekan saking padatnya, tiap orang pasti akan memikirkan dirinya sendiri, yang penting dia selamat, Begitu pula ketika hari kiamat nanti. Di ayat 2 dijelaskan bahwa ibu yang sedang hamil akan menggugurkan kandungannya, seorang ibu akan meninggalkan anak yang disusuinya, dsb. Panik seakan-akan mabuk. Panik karena azab Allah sangat dahsyat. Orang kafir bingung, ini azab sudah dateng, mau lari kemana lagi?

Poin 2

Ibadatul Khudhu. Ayat 26, 32. Kenapa waktu haji ga boleh potong kuku, cabut bulu, petik ini itu, dll. Banyak peraturan yang ngga masuk akal. Sempurna dalam beribadah kepada Allah adalah ketika kita beribadah tanpa banyak tanya. Karena pertanyaan tadi jawabannya iman. Ini membuktikan bahwa apapun perintah Allah akan kita taati.

Masih inget kisah Nabi Ibrahim dan Nabi Ismail? Waktu Siti Hajar nganter Nabi Ibrahim dan Nabi Ismail sebelum melakukan penyembelihan, setan dateng dan bisikin gini ke Siti Hajar “Kamu ini ibu yang tidak bertanggung jawab, anak udah diurus 14 tahun kok dibiarin gitu aja mau disembelih ama bapaknya, itu Ibrahim udah lama ga pulang ke rumah, lalu tiba-tiba datang dan ingin menyembelih Ismail, padahal itu anak kan kamu yang urus”. Lalu apa yang dilakukan Siti Hajar? Dia tidak menjawab godaan syetan tadi sedikitpun. Jawabannya melalui batu. Dengan tetap diam, Siti hajar mengambil batu kemudian melemparkannya ke arah bisikan tadi seraya berkata “Bismillahu Allahu Akbar” 

Begitupula ketika Nabi Ismail hendak berjalan dengan Nabi Ibrahim ke arah tempat penyembelihan. Setan pun datang dan menggoda Nabi Ismail dengan menyuruhnya pamit kembali ke ibunya. Jawaban Nabi Ismail pun sama seperti Ibunya, dia ambil batu lalu dilemparkannya ke arah setan. Setan juga menggoda Nabi Ibrahim sebelum ia menyembelih dengan berkata “Ibrahim, engkau kan Nabi, minta cobaan yang laen saja”. Dan Nabi Ibrahim pun ‘menjawab’ pertanyaan setan dengan batu. 
Maknanya adalah, seluruh anggota keluarga harus utuh dan bersatu dalam memusuhi setan. Jangan berkomunikasi sedikitpun dengan setan. Pake batu aja. 

Takbiran itu harusnya khidmat. Nabi Ibrahim waktu mengasah pedang sebelum menyembelih Nabi Ismail, bersikap ikhlas sambil bertakbir. Ngga kaya sekarang, pas malem lebaran takbiran sambil pawai dan musik, apa mungkin mereka mengingat Nabi Ibrahim dalam kondisi seperti itu?

Ibadah khudhu itu ibadah yang kita laksanakan tanpa bertanya-tanya. Coba, masuk akal ngga disuruh nyembelih anak? Ketika itu Nabi Ibrahim, Nabi Ismail dan Siti Hajar ikhlas melaksanakan perintah Allah. Dan ketika Nabi Ibrahim menyembelih Ismail, maka Allah pun menggantikan Ismail dengan seekor domba, dan ketika itu Nabi Ismail ada di sebelah Nabi Ibrahim, kemudian Nabi Ibrahim memeluk Nabi Ismail sambil berkata “nak, kita lulus nak akan cobaan Allah ini”. Begitulah makna ibadah khudlu. Apapun yang Allah perintahkan pasti baik untuk kita

 

*** to be continued…

Nasihat Pernikahan | Abi Makki

Catatan ini diambil dari pengajian ustadz abi makki di rumah seorang teman menjelang pernikahan kakaknya (26 May 2010). Semoga dapat menjadi pelajaran, terutama kepada yang nyatet. Jika ada yang salah mohon langsung dikoreksi.

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Dalam melihat segala sesuatu, harus jelas asal usulnya, dari apa dia diciptakan dan untuk apa dia diciptakan.

Tujuan manusia diciptakan adalah untuk beribadah. Laki2 diciptakan untuk menjadi seorang pemimpin. Sedangkan perempuan diciptakan untuk membuat hati laki2 tentram dan betah ada di dunia ini. (Baca surah Ar Rum ayat 21) 

Adam & Hawwa 

Ketika nabi Adam bangun dari tidurnya, ada mahkluk di sebelahnya. Kemudian Adam bertanya “kamu ini apa?”. Dijawab oleh makhluk tersebut “Aku ini manusia”. Lalu Adam bertanya lagi “Kamu ini siapa?.” Kemudian manusia tersebut menjawab “Aku ini hawwa”. Arti dari kata “hawwa” adalah: sesuatu yg tercipta dari yang hidup. Hawwa Diciptakan dr tulang rusuk adam yang kiri. Yang paling atas dan paling bengkok dan paling keras. Maka ingat: sifatnya wanita tidak jauh dari apa dia diciptakan: keras, bengkok, mau menang sendiri.

Hadis ini ditujukan untuk laki2, tapi faedahnya adalah untuk menjaga wanita. Laki2 harus hati-hati dalam menjaga wanita. Ibarat di dalam sebuah mall, terdapat kaca, dimana di kaca tersebut ada stiker peringatan “awas ada kaca”. Tujuan peringatan tersebut adalah supaya kaca itu ngga ditabrak oleh si pengunjung mall.

Cenderung bengkok: 

Wanita itu cenderung suuzon, karena perasaannya lebih tajam dari fikirannya, ini adalah hal yg wajar. Wanita cenderung mau menang sendiri. kata Rasul ke sahabat. “Kalo anda menasehati wanita dgn keras, pasti ngga akan bisa, mereka akan patah (ibarat tulang bengkok yang diluruskan dengan cara paksa), tapi kalau dibiarkan saja, mereka akan tetap bengkok”. Jadi gimana? Berlaku lemah lembutlah kepada wanita, baru anda bisa mendidiknya. Contoh: toge. Kalo toge mentah dilurusin, bisa patah. Tapi kalo toge direbus dulu, jadi gampang dilurusin. (Ini kata ibnu taimiah) Wanita itu kuat, namun terbungkus dgn kelembutan hatinya, Lihat, zaenab yang dengan membawa bayinya, beliau masih kuat jalan dari mekkah ke madinah.

Rasul paling pandai menjaga perasaan wanita. 

Suatu saat, rasul pulang dari perang tabuk. Ketika itu, Cuaca di luar panas sekali dan rasul lelah setelah seharian berperang. Ketika sampai di rumah, rasul membuka rompi dan helm, karena haus, Rasul bergerak menuju ke dapur untuk mengambil air minum untuk dirinya sendiri, padahal di dalam rumah ada istrinya, aisyah. 

Kemudia Aisyah bertanya,”Wahai rasul, apakah engkau marah? Kenapa engkau tidak menyuruhku saja untuk mengambilkan air minum untukmu?”. Dan rasul pun berkata, “tidak wahai aisyah, aku tidak marah, aku hanya takut engkau lagi sibuk.” 

Bayangkan…. rasul, yang sudah sedemikian lelahnya berperang di cuaca yang panas, untuk mengambil minum pun beliau tidak mau merepotkan istrinya. Akhirnya aisyah meminta agar dia saja yang mengambilkan air untuk rasul. Kemudian rasul meminta agar aisyah mengambilkan air yang manis untuknya.

Namun, mungkin gara2 aisyah saking rindunya sama rasul, sampe2 aisyah ketuker antara gula dan garam. Bukannya memasukkan gula ke dalam minuman rasul, malah aisyah memasukkan garam. Ketika minuman tersebut diberikan ke rasul, rasul tau kalo sebenernya aisyah ini ngga sengaja masukin garam. 
Lalu, apakah rasul memarahi aisyah? Tidak. 

Malahan rasul berkata seperti ini “Wahai Aisyah, Selama di perjalanan, saya sangat merindukanmu, cuaca siang tadi panas sekali. Walau saya berjalan di pinggir lautan, saya tidak pernah meminum air laut, karena jika minum air yang asin, nanti malah tambah haus” 
Kemudian aisyah berkata “janganlah meminum air yang asin, ini makanya saya memberikan air yang manis untukmu” 

Lalu rasul berkata “Aku rela walaupun aku haus, kamu dulu yang minum air ini” Kata aisyah “jangan, air ini kan untuk engkau” Kemudian rasul pun berkata “Tidak apa2, engkau minum aja airnya duluan”, Singkat cerita, diminum lah air tersebut sama aisyah.

Ketauan lah kalau air tersebut rasanya asin. Aisyah pun meminta maaf kepada rasul. Tapi rasul pura-pura tidak tau dan berkata ”hah, mana yg asin? Coba sini saya minum”. Akhirnya, diminumlah air tersebut sampai habis.. Kemudian aisyah berkata “Bukankah air ini asin wahai rasulullah?” Kemudian rasul menjawab “Wahai aisyah, apapun yg ter-asin dan ter-pahit di muka bumi ini, semua akan terasa manis jika ada engkau di depanku, manisnya ada di wajahmu wahai istriku”

Subhanallah.. lihatlah bagaimana rasul memperlakukan istrinya.
Rasul tidak pernah menaikkan suaranya di depan wanita. 

Dari umar ibn khatab 

“makhluk tersabar di muka bumi ini adalah wanita” Wanita itu hamil 9 bulan lamanya. Melahirkan itu sakit. Kemudian wanita pun menyusui 2 tahun. Semua hal tersebut membutuhkan kesabaran yang tinggi.

Suatu hari, ada seorang suami yang dimarahin sama istrinya, lalu laki2 ini keluar dari rumah dan pergi ke rumah Umar untuk mengadukan hal tersebut. Di depan rumah Umar, sebelum laki2 ini masuk, terdengar Umar juga lagi diomelin sama istrinya. Laki2 ini berfikir “padahal, nama Umar Bin Khatab ditakuti di seluruh romawi dan di Persia, Umar itu kalau berjalan, sangat cepat. Kalau Anda dipukul sama Umar, bisa2 sakitnya ngga hilang bertahun2”. 

Kemudian, ketika laki2 tadi bertemu Umar di mesjid, laki2 itu berkata “Wahai Umar, saya kaget, ternyata engkau takut sama wanita”, Kemudian, Umar menjawab, “Saya bukan takut, tapi saya menghargai wanita, karena wanita itu adalah manusia paling sabar di muka bumi”
Mendingan hamil 9 bulan ato mendingan diomelin istri 2 jam? 

Ada ngga kewajiban wanita untuk memasak, mencuci, menyapu, dsb? 

Jika dilihat dari hukum fiqih manapun, ternyata tidak ada kewajiban tersebut untuk wanita. Justru laki2 lah yang wajib memberikan itu semua (masak, nyuci, nyapu, dll). Jika laki2 berkewajiban memberikan “nafkah”, maka nafkah yang dimaksud adalah berupa makanan yang sudah siap makan. (contoh, nasi, bukan beras). Di arab, yg paling banyak belanja itu laki2. Yang tau harga2 di pasar itu laki2.

Loh kenapa sekarang kebalik?

Hadis rasul: “kalo seandainya diperbolehkan seorang manusia sujud ke manusia lain, akan kuperintahkan istri sujud ke suaminya”. Itu karena tanggung jawab seorang suami teramat besar.

Siapa saja yg dapat membahagiakan suaminya sedikitpun, istri tersebut dibukakan pintu surga.
Ini hikmah alim ulama: satu gelas air yang diberikan ke suami, dan suami tersebut senang, maka wanita tersebut udah dapet pahala umrah. (Ini hikmah alim ulama, bukan hadis lhoo) 
Apabila seorang suami bangun tengah malem untuk ngasih makan istri. Apakah suami tersebut dapet pahala surga? Tidak, karena hal tersebut memang kewajiban suami.

Hebatnya wanita membahagiakan suaminya, adalah karena mereka mendambakan surganya Allah..

Sepasang suami dan istri selayaknya menjadi seperti dua tangan. (kun kaliyadain). 
1. Kalo jalan, kompak. Ketika tangan kanan sedang berada didepan. Maka tangan yang kiri pasti ada di belakang. Coba, kalau sedang berjalan, tangan kiri dan tangan kanannya sama2 ada di depan, kan ngga lucu.
2. Saling tolong menolong. Kalau tangan kiri gatel, tangan kanan yg garukin. Begitu pula sebaliknya.
3. Saling bertemu. saling silaturahmi. Tangan kiri ketemu dgn tangan kanan kan? Supaya ga miskomunikasi. 
Jangan kaya telinga. Ga pernah berjumpa. Kalau gatel siapa yg garuk? 

Wallahua’lam bi shawab

Demikian, mudah2an ada manfaatnya. Sekali lagi, jika ada kesalahan dalam penulisan, mohon langsung dikoreksi. Terimakasih. 

driving in sydney

I had a remarkable experience while driving in Sydney. I think sharing these experiences here will benefit some people who are new in this.

Firstly, you don’t have to have a car to drive in Sydney. There are a lot of car rental available. The prices vary from $60 per day for a Suzuki Swift, $100 per day for a Toyota Tarago, and $150 per day for a Mitsubishi Pajero.  The requirements are your valid ID (i.e. passport), driving license (you can use international license with English translation), and your proof of address (i.e. electricity bills).

Some of the things that I discovered while driving in Sydney are:

Speed limit

Anyone who drives in Sydney must have notice about the various speed limit sign. It was annoying for the road user, but it is really important for their safety. I will discuss why speed limit is important in the next article. Generally, Sydney has 50 kilometres per hour speed limit. At school zones, the speed limit is 40 km/h. At the freeway, the speed limit can increase as high as 110 km/h. In addition, the road authorities installed heaps of speed cameras to capture the speeding driver.

Roundabout

Beside speed limit signs, Sydney has a lot of roundabouts. Again, driver might think that too many roundabouts are unnecessary, but research found that it can reduce road accidents significantly. At the roundabout, you must ‘give way’ to the driver who is in the roundabout, which is on the right-hand side of your car. Whenever you enter a roundabout, you must stop, and look at your right, if there is no other vehicle, then you can continue driving. Another common term in the roundabout is the ‘exit’. For example, in a four-legged intersection with a roundabout, if you want to turn left, it means that you are going to the first exit. Second exit means you are go straight. Third exit means that you are turn right, and so on. These terms are important if you are using GPS or google maps.

Parking

There are several types of parking in Sydney. Parking in the building at the CBD is extremely expensive. You need to spend $85 to park your car for more than 3 hours. Imagine, the cost of ten days parking is the same with the price of ipad! Alternatively, you can park your car on the street which has the P sign. In general, you may only park your car for a maximum two hours. The cost is $7 per hour. Here, what you need to do is park your car, find a parking machine, insert coins, get a ticket, then display your ticket on your car dashboard. However, these kinds of park spaces are limited, and it is very hard to find one at busy hours. Therefore, many people choose to use public transport to go to the CBD. They only use their car to shop in the suburb, which gives an easy and cheap way to park.

The tollway

Sydney has a cashless toll system. It means that you don’t have to stop at the toll gate to pay the toll. You can use e-tag, a small electronic device that you attach on your car, and it can give the signal on the toll gate to inform that your car is using the tollway. The bills of your tollway usage will automatically sent to your account. If you don’t have an e-tag, you can pay the toll online through ‘roam express’. What you should do is to register your car within 48 hours after you use the tollway.

The fuel

Unlike in Jakarta -where you can just go to a gas station, wait in your car, let the staff fill in your tank, pay for it, then go- in Sydney, you must do it by yourself. It’s not that difficult, you just insert the nozzle into your tank, then you go to the cashier and pay for it. The price of a fuel is around $1.5 per litre. You can go as further as 5 kilometres by $1.

Travelling with baby

If you are travelling with baby, you need to install a baby seat on your car. If you don’t have it, you may hire it from a baby shop. It costs you $45 for seven days. You also need a curtain on the window to protect your baby from the heat.

take the second chance to get your dream

“You want something? Go get it. Period” that was a memorable advice Christopher Gardner gave to his son in the Pursuit of Happyness movie (2006). It reminds me back of what happen ten years ago, when I had a dream to enter one of the public universities. Even now I can still remember the time that I read newspaper for one aim: searching for my name. I looked again and again, and… unfortunately…. my name wasn’t there. What did I do? I forgot. All I remember was my best friends’ names were there. Yes. They are got accepted into the well-known public universities. What made me sick was they put their name on my friend’s bedroom wall. Their name, their university, and year. I know that’s sounds a bit weird, but hey, it made me feel like I was the biggest loser. I played together, arranged a band together, studied together, did stupid things together with them, but how come they got it and I didn’t ?

But I didn’t want to sit down and cry for that failure. I remember that Thomas Alfa Edison didn’t invent the lamp in his first trial, nor did Colonel Sanders when he started KFC. There is always a second change! Therefore, what I did was trying to catch the dream that I’ve almost missed! Instead of focusing on studying in the private university (I studied there for a year), I took a ‘bimbel’ class that was dedicated for the alumni. I studied bloody hard at that time. I get all of the entertainment stuff (TV, playstation, anything) out of my room for six month. I spent day and night working on the thick-SPMB-preparation book. I worked out every questions and answers provided. I think I lost a bit of social life for a while. Even though sometimes I went out with those friends just to burn my spirit to study. I really want to get sort of the same level with them.

Finally, that exam day came. I still remember that my father drove me to the exam place himself just to support me. I did the exam pretty well. To shorten the story, I made it. Yeah, I made it! I was accepted to join the yellow jackets team! The first thing I did after I get the announcement was, gone to my friend’s bedroom wall and put my name beside theirs. I ain’t gonna tell how much my father proud of me or how confuse I was to decide whether or not leaving the private uni that I eventually like.

What I want to tell you here is that if you have a dream, just get it. Don’t give excuses why you failed it. People don’t want to hear your excuses. They don’t care about it. Stop complaining about your failure cause it won’t take you any further to your dream. If you have failed, remember, there’s always a second chance for everything. Also, as a human, we have a powerful ability to utilise the hidden energy to achieve our dream. In ‘the secret’  theory, if you think about your dream everyday, then “the universe” will bring you closer to that dream. Well, I don’t believe that. What I do believe is, it is not the universe who get you closer to the dream, but the Creator of universe instead. Anyway, the point is, don’t ever gave up your dream just because you fail it in the first place. Just try it, and again, and again, and again. Until you get that dream.

However, if you have achieve it, think about what Michelangelo said “the greatest danger for most of us is not that our aim is too high and we miss it, but that it is too low and we reach it”.

Sydney, at a very late friday nite, 2011

Addressing Road Safety Problems in Indonesia

Indonesia is facing a serious road safety problem. Approximately 20.000 people die and nearly 84.000 people suffer non-fatal injuries each year due to road accidents (Indonesian National Police, 2010). It means that every thirty minutes one person dies on the road. Without any improvement, this number will inevitably rise. The data shows that eighty nine percent of the deaths were vulnerable road users: i.e. pedestrians (15%), cyclists (13%), and motorcyclists (61%) (WHO 2009). In fact, ADB (2005) indicates that the actual number of the victims might be three times greater due to severe under reporting in Police Data. The economic loss from road accidents was projected to be around US$ 4.5 billion or 2.9 % of the Indonesian Gross Domestic Product (UGM 2002 as cited in Pasek 2006).

There are three main contributing factors to road crashes: human, vehicle, and road. Human factors include road users who do not comply with the road rules, such as motorcyclists who do not wear helmets, drivers who do not wear seatbelts, road users who ignore the traffic lights, riders who drive on the wrong lane, and so on. Vehicle factors include vehicles without proper safety equipment, i.e. seatbelt, flat tire, broken braking system, etc. Road factors include road infrastructure with bad horizontal or vertical alignment, poor surface condition, lack of adequate signage and line marking, etc. One study recorded that human factors contributing roughly 78% followed by vehicle 6% and road 3% with 11% remaiing unknown (Directorate of Technical Affairs 2009). On top of that, road crashes happen because of the interaction of these three factors, but since the data shows that road factors only contribute 3 % to the crashes, people often neglect it and blame all crashes on the road users. However, the data should be analyzed more deeply because often when road safety engineers conduct an inspection of the crash site, they reveal many other findings that have not been covered in the police records. Therefore, this essay will discuss how far road infrastructure contributes to the crashes, and how improving it can reduce the number of fatalities.

International studies found that the road condition plays a major role in the occurrence and fatalities of road crashes (IndII 2010). The Global Plan for the Decade of Action for Road Safety 2011-2020, released by the World Health Organization (WHO 2010), stated that there are five pillars that should be addressed in improving road safety problems, and ‘safer roads pillar’ is placed prior to ‘safer vehicle pillar’ and ‘safer people pillar’. It can be concluded that road aspect should be improved first before improving the vehicle and human factors.

How to determine whether or not the road contribute to a road crash? Phillip Jordan, who has over thirty years of road safety experience in 24 countries (2009) says that it can be done through road safety engineering. It consists of two main processes: Blackspot investigation, a tool to obtained detail information about the crash and to decide what type of countermeasure is needed to prevent another crash in the future; And road safety audit, a comprehensive assessment to find the safety deficiencies at a specific link of the road. Jordan has conducted numerous blackspot investigations and road safety audits along Indonesian National Highways since 2007. His report (2009) shows that most of the highways have enormous safety deficiencies. In fact, nearly 47% of the 34.600 km roads are still sub-standard, which means most of the roads are undivided and less than 5.5 m wide (MPW 2009). Moreover, approximately 17% of the road surface is in poor and very poor condition, let alone proper safety devices such as signage, marking, and delineation.

The gap between the actual condition and the standard is very significant. As stated in the Government Regulation (Number 34 2006), arterial roads are supposed to be minimum 11 meters wide and have a median at the centre of the road to divide the traffic. However, fulfilling the standard only is not enough. Herrstedt (2006) points out that the new paradigm in safer road planning is called a “self explaining and forgiving road”. Self explaining road means that the road should be equipped with signage and delineation, so that the road users have a clear direction in driving their vehicle. While the concept of forgiving road is based on the understanding that road users are ordinary people who can make mistakes which lead to crashes. In this case, their mistake should be ‘forgiven’ and not be punished by death (ibid). This method consists of fulfilling the gap of safety deficiencies, include removing hazardous obstacles along the roads, installation of crash barrier, sealing the shoulders, etc. In a forgiving road, even if a crash occurs, the severity of the victim is significantly decreased.

In addition, WHO (2004) states that one of the road safety problems in Asian countries is the mixed of traffic on one carriageway which can increase the risk of crashes. It claims that a road network should have clarity in terms of the hierarchy of roads. For example, high-speed roads should have limited access, large curve radius, or special lane for motorcyclists.  Rural roads should have periodic lanes for overtaking, median barriers to prevent overtaking in hazardous locations, removed road side hazards, etc. In terms of pedestrian and cyclists safety, WHO states that the pedestrian and cyclist lane should be separated from the motorized lane, and it also should be connected to public transport facility.

ADB (2003) supports these approaches and also adds more detailed information about the importance of knowing the characteristic of developing countries’ road condition before practicing such strategy. In developing countries, the road is mostly used by vulnerable road users. It fact, in Indonesia, the number of motorcycles is four times greater than the number of cars. Therefore, from the planning stage, the focus should be given to the motorcyclists and other vulnerable road users. ADB notes that there are several things to consider in safe planning, such as: Land use should be spread out so that the traffic conflict can be reduced, direct access from local to major road should be limited, e.g. no access should be allowed at sharp curves and hill crests. In terms of safe design, ADB mentions the fundamental aspects such as: cross-section including the width of the road according to its hierarchy, sight distances are not obstructed by anything, sufficient curve radius including the horizontal and vertical alignment, speed limits signs should be clearly installed, road signs and marking should be conspicuous and clear, drainage ditches should not located too close to the road, obstacles and safety fencing to prevent collisions should be introduced, street lighting should be installed at intersections, bus stops and lay-bys should be provided to prevent rear-end crashes, intersections should be obvious, and pedestrian facilities should be provided particularly in urban roads (ADB 2003)

As mentioned earlier, there is a huge gap between actual Indonesian roads and the ideal condition. The implementation of road safety development might be classified into two terms: short term and long term countermeasures. Short term countermeasures are a low cost improvements which can carried out immediately and have direct impact, such as routine maintenance (e.g. patching the potholes, cutting the vegetation which obstruct the sight distance, removing roadside hazard, covering the ditches, etc),  installation of proper safety devices (e.g. signage, marking, crash barrier, delineation, etc). Since these improvements are low-cost, funding would not be a problem, yet, the awareness of road authorities to perform such improvements is the real challenge. In contrast, long term countermeasures include things that need appropriate planning before being carried out. It includes realignment of the road, planning new infrastructure, capacity building, etc. These improvements will need both the willingness of the road authorities and the funding.

To implement such strategies, there should be clear calculation about what are the benefits from a road safety improvement. One way to present it is through a Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR) Analysis (Phillip 2009). But, to be able to calculate the benefits and costs, there should be information about Crash Reduction Factor (CRF). It is a percentage reduction in crashes that can be expected after implementing a treatment or program, and used in selecting appropriate countermeasures and in economic appraisal of road safety project. Vicroads, road authority in Victoria, has been developing the CRF since 1980s. Some of the examples are, improving sight distance by removing roadside hazard can reduce the crash to 50%, sealing the shoulder and painting the edge lines can reduce the crashes to 30%, and so on. CRF has also been studied in Denmark, for example, Herrstedt (1997) found that providing special lane for bicycle along urban road can reduce deaths among cyclists by 35%. From this CRF, the BCR can be calculated, hence, we can get the information about the priority of which countermeasure should be implemented.  However, Indonesia does not have such studies at the moment. It is strongly suggested that Indonesia starts developing its own CRF.

In conclusion, there is a lot of evidence to show that improving road infrastructure can reduce the number of fatalities significantly. However, the reduction will not happen overnight, it will need continuous process. In fact, improving the roads per se will not solve the problems, it should be followed by improving the vehicles as well as the people in order to address the road safety problem successfully.

References:

Asian Development Bank, 2003, Road Safety Guidelines for the Asian Pacific Region, ADB. Philippines.

Asian Development Bank-Association of Southeast Asian Nations Regional Road Safety Program, 2005, Country Report CR-3: Indonesia, Philippines

Directorate of Technical Affairs Directorate General of Highways Ministry of Public Works (MPW), 2009, the Mapping of Blackspot Location at Sumatra East Corridor and North Coast Java Corridor, Indonesia (unpublished)

Directorate General of Highways (DGH) Ministry of Public Works, 2009, DGH 2010-2014 Strategic Plan, Indonesia.

Government Regulation, 2006, Peraturan Pemerintah Number 34 Year 2006 Concerning Road, Republic of Indonesia.

Herrstedt, L. 1997. Planning and safety of bicycles in urban areas, in: Proceedings of the Traffic Safety on Two Continents Conference. Swedish National Road and Transport Institute, Denmark.

Herrstedt, L. 2006. Self-Explaining and Forgiving Roads – Speed Management in Rural Areas. Trafitec, Denmark.

Indonesian National Police Data, 2010, Traffic Accidents Data 2004-2009, Traffic Police, Indonesia.

Indonesia Infrastructure Initiative (IndII), 2010, Making Indonesia’s Roads Safer: An Australia-Indonesia Partnership in Road Safety Engineering, Indonesia.

Jordan, P. 2009, Introduction to road safety engineering, Ministry of Public Works, Indonesia. (unpublished)

Ministry of Public Works (MPW), 2010, the role of Ministry of Public Works in Developing Safer Roads, MPW, Indonesia. (unpublished)

Pasek, G. 2006, Indonesia’s Country Report for Expert Group Meeting on The Development of the Asian Highway Network: Regional Experiences and Lessons in Financing Highway Infrastructure and Improving Road Safety, Indonesia.

World Health Organization, 2004, World Report on Road Traffic Injury Prevention, WHO, Geneva.

World Health Organization, 2009, Global Status Report on Road Safety: Time for Action, WHO, Geneva.

World Health Organization, 2010, Global Plan for the Decade of Action for Road Safety 2011-2020, WHO, Geneva.